CIVIL RIGHT-- SOUTH AFRICA


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"As we are liberated from our own fear, our presence automatically liberates others."~ Nelson Mandela
"I don't think that the education that you get hinges on the color of the person sitting next to you in the classroom, What educators should focus on is improving schools." ~ Roger Clegg
Definitions:
African National Congress (ANC): Multiracial nationalist movement which sought to bring about democratic political changes in South Africa
Pan African Congress: South African political party, that was founded in 1959 as a rival to the African National Congress.
Apartheid:
  1. An official policy of racial segregation formerly practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites.
  2. A policy or practice of separating or segregating groups.
  3. The condition of being separated from others; segregation.

Apartheid in Action (In History)
In Africa, there is a harsh division between the white minority and the non white minority. The "National Party" initiated an apartheid to contribute to their campaign and elections in 1948. With the winning of the "National Party Victory", the apartheid continued as a government policy until the 1990's. This major impact has impinged on life today in South Africa, and sadly, the inequalities between white and black South Africans still continue on today.

Take Action!

In the Year 1960, an event occurred that bought two rivals together for one cause. The ANC and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) combined forces and demanded for a nationwide manifestation against the laws that South Africa has passed. The laws were put in place to control the advancement and employment of blacks. With these laws, it required the black minority to carry identity papers with them. Obviously, people did not agree with this, and while taking action, 69 brave blacks were killed, and 186 were injured while protesting in Sharpeville. After the massacre of brave men, both the ANC and the PAC were banned

Nelson Mandela (1918-Present)
Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela

"During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to this struggle of the African people, I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if it needs be it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. ~ Nelson Mandela

"Nelson Mandela is an amazing man who spent 27 years in isolation as a prisoner and then when released became the president of South Africa." (Recited in his Autobiography)


Milestones and Important Dates


1940 - Nelson became expelled from the University of Fort Hare. In college, he began to get involved in political fights against racial discrimination, which South Africa was experiencing at the time.
1944- He joins the ANC. Together with Tambo and Sisulu, he helps found the ANC Youth League. During that same year Mandela marries his first wife, Evelyn Mase, who was a trainee nurse. The couple will have two sons and two daughters, although their first daughter dies in the year 1948, she passed at the age of nine months. Another loss occured in 1969, when their eldest son is killed in a car crash. Sadly, Nelson was still in prison at the time of his death.
1951- Mandela, who is both president of the Youth League and of the Transval region of the ANC, is now stepped into the role of the President of the ANC.
1952- Mandela and Tambo, who was his business partner, open the first black legal firm in the country. Much of their work involved defending blacks, who were charged with pass law offences. Meanwhile, the defiance campaign has helped build ANC membership from about 7,000 at the beginning of the year to more than 100,000 by the year's end.
1958- Mandela meets social worker Nomzamo Zaniewe Winifred "Winnie" Madikizela. He divorces his first wife and marries Winnie.
1964-1990- Nelson Mandela was put in prison under charges of "sabotage, treason, and violent conspiracy."(Microsoft Encarta Encylopedia Delux)
1993-Because of his Major contribution as a South African activist, he became the winner of the 1993 Nobel Peace Prize.

Nelson Mandela was recognized for negotiating the end of apartheid and lead South Africa's peaceful transition to democratic rule.

WHAT'S GOING ON NOW!!
Charlotte, North Carolina has always had issues with segregation. The Mecklenburg School District was at one time court-ordered for integration. "Charlotte is rapidly re-segregating," says Carol Sawyer, a parent and member of the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools Equity Committee. Segregation has become a trend for some places. Segregation is occurring in larger cities, where minorities are abundant. The South was the area that originally integrated, but now seem to be falling back into old ways.

WHAT CAN YOU DO ABOUT IT?
Try not to stick to one group, by diversifying yourself you allow others to be open
As mentioned, lack of diversity is a major issue. Minorities naturally want to be around people like them, but this can be changed. By simply stepping out of your own social box could allow others to be more comfortable.
QUESTIONS?

If you had the chance, what would you do to unify people?

Are you socially diverse? If not, why?








Work Cited

Dowling, Mike, "Mr. Dowling's Nelson Mandela Page," available from http://www.mrdowling.com/609-mandela.html; Internet; updated Sunday, April 2, 2006. ©2008, Mike Dowling. All rights reserved.

O'Meara, Patrick. "Mandela, Nelson Rolihlahla.”
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Deluxe. 2003. 31 Jan 2008

Shirly, John. "John Shirley Message Board." John Shirley Blog. 1/29/2008. 11 Feb 2008 <http://www.johnshirley.com>.