AFRICAN AMERICAN JOBS




-DEFINITIONS-

*Prohibition-the act of prohibiting; a declaration or injunction forbidding some action
*Segregation- generally taken to mean the practice of forcibly separating people based upon their race or ethnicity
*Discrimination- treatment or consideration based on class or category rather than individual merit
*Equity- the state, quality, or ideal of being just, impartial, and fair


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*American Civil Rights Movement: was in 1955-1968 and it was established to abolish white power and racial discrimination against African Americans. It started with states in the South passing racial discriminatory laws, and the black power attacked the South with various strategies with taking that away. African Americans struggled with trying to earn back their freedom and rights to become equal to all. Along with one whom led the Civil Rights Movement, Martin Luther King Jr., Black Power struck back to gain their self-determination, land, culture, and pride.
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*African American Jobs Back Then and Now
17.1 percent of employed workers were in professional, technical and managerial occupations, while 13.7 percent of the population was in service and labor occupations. The largest chunk of the labor force worked as operatives, which included seamstresses, bus drivers, and other transportation and material moving occupations.The racial categories were simplistic: white, Negro and other races. African Americans represented 10 percent of the population and held 38 percent of service and labor positions and 18.2 percent of operative positions. And they held just 5 percent of managerall positions.The numbers today African Americans are still low in management and professional occupations and high in service and labor-intensive ones. More than one-third (33.6 percent) of all civilian workers are in management and professional jobs, yet African Americans hold only 25.2 percent of those positions. In service occupations, African American workers represent 22 percent of the workforce, while the national average for all racial and ethnic groups is 14.9 percent. The same pattern is evident in the production, transportation and material moving sector -- the category Parks would be in today. African Americans hold 18.6 percent of the jobs; the national average is 14.6 percent.Blue-collar workers remain a large portion of the labor force, though the need for seamstresses and other textile workers has declined since Parks's day. And low-skilled, service and labor workers still push for better wages, healthcare coverage, fair working conditions, and pensions.

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*Timeline of Key Events:
- 1954 U.S Supreme Court declares segregation unconstitutional in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka ruling.
-1955 Rosa Parks refuses to move to the back of a Montgomery, Alabama bus as required by city ordinance; boycott follows and bus segregation ordinance is declared unconstitutional.
-1961 Freedom Rides begin from Washington, D.C., into Southern states.
-1963 Police arrest King and other ministers demonstrating in Birmingham, Alabama, turned fire hoses and police dogs on the marchers.
-1965 Malcom X is murdered Feb. 21. Three men are convicted of his murder.
-1968 The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated in Memphis, Tennesse, which unleashing violence in more than 100 cities.



*IMPORTANT LEADERS:

*Rosa Parks: was a black woman who refused to give up her seat on the bus to a white man forty years ago on December 1, 1955. She was arrested, tried, and convicted for violating a local ordinance and for disorderly conduct. This triggered a wave of protest December 5, 1955 that reverberated throughout the United States. Her quiet courageous act changed America, its view of black people and redirected the course of history.(Clayborne, Carson. "AFRICAN – AMERICAN LEADERSHIP AND MASS MOBILIZATION." 1994. 31 Jan 2008 rosaparks3sm.jpg










*Thurgood Marshall: was a civil rights lawyer during the period of segregation. During this time a large portion of American society refused to extend equality to black people. Marshall realized the best way to make a change was through the legal system. Between 1938-1961 he was presented with more than 30 civil rights cases before the Supreme Court. He won 29 out of the 30 cases. Marshall’s most important case was the Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka in the year 1954 and this ended the segregation in public schools.
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*Martin Luther King Jr: was a very important and well liked hero during the Civil Rights movement. King was well loved and known for his heroism by the way he led the movement. King emphasized how important it was that the civil rights movement did not sink to the level of the racists and hate mongers they fought against: "Let us not seek to satisfy our thirst for freedom by drinking from the cup of bitterness and hatred," he urged. His idea of toughmindedness and tenderedheartedness was not only effective but it gave people inspiration and hope for a new way of life.
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
*1* "academy of achievement." 02 February 2008 <http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/par0pro-1>.

*2* "prohibition." 02 February 2008 <http://www.dictionary.net/prohibition>.

*3* "discrimination." 02 February 2008 <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/discrimination>.

*4* "A century of tears and triumph." 02 February 2008 <http://alt.tnt.tv/movies/tntoriginals/wallace/seg.home.h

*5* "equity." 02 February 2008 <http://www.investorwords.com/1726/equity.html>.

*6* "Civil Rights Movement Heroes." 2007 02 February 2008 <http://infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html>.

*7* 2007 02 February 2008 <"Civil Rights Movement Heroes." 2007 02 February 2008 .>.

*8* "Civil Righs Timeline." 2007 02 February 2008 <http://africanaonline.com/civil_rights_timeline.htm>.

*9* 2007 02 February 2008 <http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://news-service.stanford.edu/news/2006/january11