HOMOSEXUAL BENEFITS

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Harry Hay founder of gay right movments

DEFINITIONS:

1.Alliance Defense Fund-legal alliance the right to hear and speak their word.
2.American Civil Liberties Union-National organization advocating individual rights
3.Benefit- A payment or gift made by an employer, the state, or an insurance company
4.Civil rights-The rights of citizens to political and social freedom and equality.
5.Civil Rights Act of 1875- Sought to protect blacks against discrimination in public accommodations like parks, schools, public transportation, and hotels
6.Civil Rights Act of 1964-Outlawed discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, and national origin in employment, education, labor unions, and public accommodations
7.Defense of Marriage Acts-law passed in 1996 by bill clinton. stating that couples can not be recognised by their domestic partnership.
8.Discrimination-The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, age, or sex.
9.Gay rights-Equal civil and social rights for homosexuals compared with heterosexuals.
10.Malcolm X -U.S. political activist He joined the Nation of Islam in 1946 and became a vigorous campaigner for black rights, initially advocating the use of violence. In 1964, he converted to Orthodox Islam and moderated his views on black separatism; he was assassinated the following year.
11.Reciprocal Beneficiary Agreement-Inherits in the same position as a spouse without a will

Civil Rights Act Of 1875

Passed during the reconstruction era, 1st summited to congress in 1970 by republican Charles Sumner, his bill prohibited discrimination in schools, theaters, cemeteries, public transportation, hotels, and churches. The bill was not passed because it upset Democrats and more conservative republicans. The bill was re-proposed by James G. Blaine of Maine and Representative James Garfield who proposed a comprised version that took out schools and cemeteries out of the bill.President Ulysses S. Grant threw his wight behind the bill giving it his full support. The bill lasted until 1883 because it was ruled unconstitutional by an 8 to 1 vote. The ideals of the bill would later be implemented into the civil rights bill of 1964.

Civil Rights Act of 1964

The civil rights act was an act against discrimination and segregation in the US schools and public areas. The bill was originally for African American Rights but was developed to protect womens rights as well, This started the equal employment opportunity commission, and the equal protection clause. It was now illegal to discriminate in public facilities, government, and employment. This made it illegal to discriminate against races in schools, housing, or hiring. Originally the enforcement of the bill was low but it later increased.
The prohibition on discrimination towards sex was included later by Howard W Smith.



Gay Rights-present

Leaders-

Harry hay said to be the founder of gay rights movments.

The American Gay Rights Movement: A Time line

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0761909.html
1924
The Society for Human Rights in Chicago becomes the country's earliest known gay rights organization.
1948
Alfred Kinsey publishes Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, revealing to the public that homosexuality is far more widespread than was commonly believed.
1951
The Mattachine Society, the first national gay rights organization, is formed by Harry Hay, considered by many to be the founder of the gay rights movement.
1956
The Daughters of Bilitis, a pioneering national lesbian organization, is founded.
1962
Illinois becomes the first state in the U.S. to decriminalize homosexual acts between consenting adults in private.
1969
The Stonewall riots transform the gay rights movement from one limited to a small number of activists into a widespread protest for equal rights and acceptance. Patrons of a gay bar in New York's Greenwich Village, the Stonewall Inn, fight back during a police raid on June 27, sparking three days of riots.
1973
The American Psychiatric Association removes homosexuality from its official list of mental disorders.
1982
Wisconsin becomes the first state to outlaw discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
1993
The “Don't Ask, Don't Tell” policy is instituted for the U.S. military, permitting gays to serve in the military but banning homosexual activity. President Clinton's original intention to revoke the prohibition against gays in the military was met with stiff opposition; this compromise, which has led to the discharge of thousands of men and women in the armed forces, was the result.
1996
In Romer v. Evans, the Supreme Court strikes down Colorado's Amendment 2, which denied gays and lesbians protections against discrimination, calling them “special rights.” According to Justice Anthony Kennedy, “We find nothing special in the protections Amendment 2 withholds. These protections . . . constitute ordinary civil life in a free society.”
2000
Vermont becomes the first state in the country to legally recognize civil unions between gay or lesbian couples. The law states that these “couples would be entitled to the same benefits, privileges, and responsibilities as spouses.” It stops short of referring to same-sex unions as marriage, which the state defines as heterosexual.1
2003
The U.S. Supreme Court rules in Lawrence v. Texas that sodomy laws in the U.S. are unconstitutional. Justice Anthony Kennedy wrote, “Liberty presumes an autonomy of self that includes freedom of thought, belief, expression, and certain intimate conduct.”
In November, the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that barring gays and lesbians from marrying violates the state constitution. The Massachusetts Chief Justice concluded that to “deny the protections, benefits, and obligations conferred by civil marriage” to gay couples was unconstitutional because it denied “the dignity and equality of all individuals” and made them “second-class citizens.” Strong opposition followed the ruling.
2004
On May 17, same-sex marriages become legal in Massachusetts.
2005
Civil unions become legal in Connecticut in Oct. 2005.
2006
Civil unions become legal in New Jersey in December.
2007
In November, the House of Representatives approves a bill ensuring equal rights in the workplace for gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals.

Present

In 2000, California voted on proposition 22. The Proposition is also known as the "California Defence of Marriage act." The proposition modified section 308.5 of the family Code to read: "Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California." This proposition prevents same-sex couples from receiving a marriage license in the state of California and having their marriage recognized in the state, in the event to Canada or Massachusetts, were married there, and returned to California. Proposition 22 did not limit the ability of the legislature to grant some state privileges and obligations enjoyed by all married couples to committed gay and lesbian couples. The only limitation was that the state cannot actually marry same-sex couples.

Romer v. Evans

A.K.A the gay rights case. A U.S. Supreme Court case which struck down a Colorado constitutional provision exempting homosexuals from anti-discrimination laws and statutes. In the 1970s and 1980s, a number of Colorado municipalities enacted ordinances prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation in housing, employment, education, public accommodations, health and welfare services, and other public and private activities. In 1992 Colorado voters adopted through a statewide referendum Amendment 2 to the Colorado State Constitution, repealing all existing homosexual rights laws and precluding all legislative, executive, or judicial action at the state or local level designed to protect the status of persons based on their "homosexual, lesbian, or bisexual orientation, conduct, practices or relationships.


Don't Ask Don't Tell policy.

Passed By Bill Clinton Made it legal for gays to join the army by protecting servicemen and servicewomen from being questioned about their sexual preferences.


Bibliography
1.http://web.ebscohost.com/src/detail?vid=4&hid=3&sid=93c592ba-a95c-4030-b6e2-fe0276542d2d%40sessionmgr9
2.Kersch, Ken I. "civil rights." In Schultz, David. Encyclopedia of the Supreme Court. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2005. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=ESC0091&SingleRecord=True (accessed January 30, 2008).
3.Bates, Christopher. "Civil Rights Act, 1875." In Waugh, Joan, and Gary B. Nash, eds. Encyclopedia of American History: Civil War and Reconstruction, 1856 to 1869, vol. 5. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2003. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=EAHV060&SingleRecord=True (accessed February 1, 2008).
4.Schwartz, Richard A. "Don't Ask; Don't Tell: 1993." The 1990s, Eyewitness History. New York: Facts On File, Inc., 2006. American History Online. Facts On File, Inc. http://www.fofweb.com/activelink2.asp?
ItemID=WE52&iPin=EH90sEssay06&SingleRecord=True (accessed February 6, 2008).
5.http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.glbtq.com/images/thumbnails/social-sciences/hay_h.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.glbtq.com/sfeatures/interviewhay.html&h=154&w=120&sz=3&hl=en&start=19&um=1&tbnid=cMM3GSSp8riQyM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=75&prev=/images%3Fq%3DHarry%2BHay%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26suggon%3D0%26safe%3Dactive%26client%3Dfirefox-a%26rls%3Dorg.mozilla:en-US:official%26sa%3DN
Feb 6 2008

"the American Gay Rights Movement:A Timeline." Gayrights. 15 11 2005. Pearson Education. 6 Feb 2008 <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0761909.html>.