African Americans


African American Welfare

Since the beginning of time, man has differentiated himself from his fellow man by looks.
As we evolved and began to create religion and politics, these too became a basis for
differentiation. Differentiation became basis for hate, hate becomes the basis for oppression,
and oppression leads to movement. The Civil Rights Movement in U.S. history is one of the classic
examples. Beginning with African-Americans, this movement has spread to Latinos, Native Americans,
Gays and everyone else who is not a white Christian male.

Civil Rights Movement And It's Effect on Modern Day African-Americans

The Civil Rights movement of the fifties and sixties was the beginning of a new era in American History. They allowed African Americans to really become Americans with all of the rights, freedoms, and most importantly, the opportunities associated with that. Today, African-Americans are getting a second wind of sorts with the introduction of Affirmative Action and other bills that continue to expand the opportunities of the African-American community as well as all minorities. The importance of the first Civil Rights Movement to the current movement is that the first paved the way for the present, just as it has been all through-out history. The previous generation clears the path, so that the next generation can accomplish the goal. Leaders like Martin Luther King, along with his son Martin Luther King Junior taught people to protest peacefully. Malcom X taught people to never give up and to push back when they were pushed too hard. Today, leaders like Jessy Jackson teaches people to stand up and be themselves, to be black. This election is probably the biggest one for the African-American Community because of the high probablilty of Barack Obama being elected to the Office of the President of the United States.

Brown Vs. Board of Education -

There were five cases total in the Brown Vs. Board of Education type trials. The four others were: Bulah vs. Gebhart, Briggs vs. Elliot, Davis vs. County School Board of Prince Edward County, and Bolling vs. C. Melvin Sharpe. It is said that there have been court battles with segregation and the board of education dating back to 1849, whereas this particular one didn't take place until 1950. Their wish was to simply desegregate the elementary schools in Kansas, and all other segregated schools.

Montgomery Bus Boycott -

The originional date of this movement was December 1, 1955. Most people assume that the movement was started by Rosa Parks, but it is revealed that the first person to refuse her seat on a bus was a fifteen year old girl by the name of Claudette Colvin. However, she got no publicity because she was pregnant and Nixon needed someone in court that had a chance at winning in all of the court battles. It was Rosa Parks that performed the same stunt and was later arrested for refusal to give up her seat to a white man. Jo Ann Robinson was the woman that made the plans and put them into action for the boycott.

Little Rock Nine -

Nine students make up "Little Rock Nine" and the "Little Rock" is the city in Arkansas where their story takes place. All of the nine students were high schoolers at Central High School in 1957. What made them so important is that they were the first nine African American students to integrate into an all white school.

Freedom Riders

A group of civil rights activists who wanted integration on public transportation. Rosa Parks was a major leader of this movement.

Plessy Vs. Furgeson -

This case began in 1892 with a shoemaker for sitting in what was considered a "white car". Though Plessy wasn't 100% Black, the law stated that enough of him was and he was put in jail. Ultimatly Plessy lost the case, winning a mere "seperate but equal" rule.


15th Amendment - To give male minorities the right to vote. Ratified on February 3rd, 1870.
Abolitionist - Someone who wishes to abolish or get rid of slavery.
Apartheid - Any system or practice that separates people according to race, caste, etc.
Civil Rights Movement - movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens.
Integrate - To bring together or incorporate (parts) into a whole.
Magna Carta - 1. The "Great Charter" of English liberties, forced from King John by the English barons and sealed at Runnymede, June 15, 1215.
2. Any fundamental constitution or law guaranteeing rights and liberties.
NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
On Welfare - Receiving financial aid from the government or from a private organization because of hardship and need.
Segregation - To separate or set apart from others or from the main body or group. Isolate.
Sit-In - An organized passive protest, especially against racial segregation, in which the demonstrators occupy seats prohibited to them, as in restaurants and other public places.
Suffrage - The right or privilege to vote, especially in a political election.
Welfare - The good fortune, health, happiness, prosperity of a person, group, or organization; well - being.


Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African American
early-civilrights/brown.html (25 May 1998).

Simple justice : the history of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's struggle for equality / by Richard Kluger.
1st ed.
New York : Knopf, 1976, c1975.
x, 823, xxiii p., [4] leaves of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Bibliography: p. [791]-795.
ISBN: 0394472896
Crusaders in the courts : how a dedicated band of lawyers fought for the civil rights revolution / Jack Greenberg.
New York : BasicBooks, c1994.
xxii, 634 p., [16] p. of plates : ill. ; 24 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. [523]-613) and index.
CONTENTS: Pt. 1. Preparing the ground -- Pt. 2. Edging toward a showdown : Brown v. Board of Education -- Pt. 3. Brown decided : eyes on the future -- Pt. 4. The movement takes off -- Pt. 5. The era of the Civil Rights Act -- Pt. 6. Changing the guard again.
ISBN: 0465015182
They closed their schools : Prince Edward County, Virginia, 1951-1964 / [by] Bob Smith.
Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, [1965]
x, 281 p. ; 22 cm.
Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. [267]-281).
REPRINTED BY: Farmville, Va. : Martha E. Forrester Council of Women, 1996.
First published: Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 1965. The 1966 publication includes "Reflections" (p.ix-xviii) and new preface by author (p.xix-xxiv)
ISBN: 0965410609
Warriors don't cry : a searing memoir of the battle to integrate Little Rock's Central High / Melba Pattillo Beals.
New York : Pocket Books, c1994.
xxiii, 312 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
ISBN: 0671866389
ALSO AVAILABLE FROM: New York : Washington Square Press, 1995 (ISBN: 0671866397).
Stepping stone to the Supreme Court : Clarendon County / Benjamin F. Hornsby, Jr.
Columbia, S.C. : South Carolina Dept. of Archives & History, c1992.
26 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 26).
SERIES: Topics in African American history ; 1.
ISBN: 1880067137
The burden of Brown : thirty years of school desegregation / Raymond Wolters.
Knoxville : University of Tennessee Press, c1984.
346 p. ; 23 cm.
Bibliography: p.329-332.
ISBN: 0870494236
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka : anatomy of a decision / by Elizabeth J. Vandever.
iii, 452 leaves.
Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Kansas, 1971.
Bibliography: leaves 436-452.
AVAILABILITY: Photocopy. Ann Arbor, Mich. : University Microfilms International, 1981. -- 22 cm.
The petitioners : the story of the Supreme Court of the United States and the Negro.
New York : Pantheon Books, [1966]
xv, 461 p. ; 22 cm.
Bibliographical references included in "Notes" (p. [435]-455).
Dismantling desegregation : the quiet reversal of Brown v. Board of Education / Gary Orfield, Susan E. Eaton, and the Harvard Project on School Desegregation.
New York : New Press, c1996.
xxiii, 424 p. ; 25 cm.
Includes bibliographical references (p. 363-409) and index.
ISBN: 1565843053

Cozzens, Lisa. "Brown v. Board of Education." African American
early-civilrights/brown.html (25 May 1998).